April 7, 2020

How Does a Fuel Pressure Regulator Work?

Should I upgrade my Fuel Pressure Regulator?

We often get questions about fuel pressure regulators, how they work, what role they play in a fuel system and what it is that makes Nuke promise that their’s is suitable for over 1000 HP.

Here we will go through the basics, how one works, how one functions in a fuel system and explain the different parts. Many of the available online guides online are outdated, describing older designs and many times they do not apply to modern injection systems.

What is the purpose of a Fuel Pressure Regulator?

The Fuel Pressure Regulator is a must have item for any EFI system. Without it, the fuel rail will not be able to build up enough pressure to support the injectors with the sufficient amount of fuel. The fuel will instead flow straight through and not reach the injectors.

On the other hand, blocking the pass-through to the fuel tank off completely, the fuel pump will try to force too much fuel into the injectors which will cause them to fail. To accommodate a successful fuel and air mixture, a proper fuel pressure is required in all situations, both at low revs and high revs, regardless of the power output. This is where the fuel pressure regulator is doing its job, to adapt the fuel supply to the fuel demand.

What is a Fuel Pressure Regulator and how does it work?

A fuel pressure regulator is used to maintain steady fuel supply, even during dramatic changes in fuel demand. The fuel injector has two sides: one side of the injector is under pressure from the the fuel rail and the other side is air boosted by a turbo or a compressor. Ideal ratio is a 1:1 ratio. The fuel pressure regulator regulates the fuel pressure against the air pressure/boost, which enables the fuel injector to maintain the perfect ratio between fuel and boost.

The fuel pressure regulator consist of a diaphragm that controls the bypass valve “ball seat” and as the picture below illustrates it can open and close in order to adjust itself for a steady fuel delivery.

When pressure (boost) is applied to the top of the regulator, the diaphragm, which is attached to the bypass valve, a spring forces the diaphragm down and reduces the amount of excess fuel, this makes the fuel pumps work harder while the fuel pressure increases linearly towards the increasing boost pressure from the intake manifold.

How do I know what fuel pressure my regulator gives?

Like most regulators our FPR provides a convenient pressure port for attaching a fuel pressure gauge or alternatively, a fuel pressure sensor for digital output.

How does the diaphragm move within the Fuel Pressure Regulator?

Fuel pressure regular internal diagram

What are the essential parts of a Fuel Pressure Regulator?

Fuel pressure regulator parts

What is the difference between a performance fuel pressure regulator like Nuke’s and a cheap copy?

A larger fuel pressure regulator can handle more flow and a higher pressure while maintaining the 1:1 ratio. Often, the more expensive fuel pressure regulators can withstand more types of alcohol fuels, like ethanol and methanol, while a cheaper regulator exposed to those kinds of alcohol fuels often gets a broken diaphragm which could cause serious damage to your engine in result.

The Nuke Performance fuel pressure regulator ( Nuke Performance FPR90 Fuel Pressure Regulator  ADD TO CART ) is designed high demanding setups with the same performance hallmark as all their products. The company guarantees that it is 1000 HP + approved.

How can you ensure that a unit is capable of over 1000 HP?

Nuke Performance designed their fuel pressure regulator focused on producing the best, most reliable and accurate regulator on the market. And with well over a thousand of regulators sold, thousands and thousands miles of drag racing, drifting, track days and on the street, the proof is in the results and Nuke Performance can guarantee that their regulator is 1000 HP approved!

This article originally appeared here. It is reproduced with permission and has been slightly edited for clarity. Torqued is the official US distributor for Nuke Performance.

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